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中国和美国的人工智能战略

时间:2018-02-23 15:17来源:admin 作者:admin 点击:
美国和中国相继发布了AI战略,试图在未来成为AI产业领域领袖
中国人工智能三步战略目标
2017年7月发布

 
第一步,到2020年人工智能总体技术和应用与世界先进水平同步,人工智能产业成为新的重要经济增长点,人工智能技术应用成为改善民生的新途径,有力支撑进入创新型国家行
列和实现全面建成小康社会的奋斗目标。
——新一代人工智能理论和技术取得重要进展。大数据智能、跨媒体智能、群体智能、混合增强智能、自主智能系统等基础理论和核心技术实现重要进展,人工智能模型方法、核心器件、高端设备和基础软件等方面取得标志性成果。
——人工智能产业竞争力进入国际第一方阵。初步建成人工智能技术标准、服务体系和产业生态链,培育若干全球领先的人工智能骨干企业,人工智能核心产业规模超过1500亿元,带动相关产业规模超过1万亿元。
——人工智能发展环境进一步优化,在重点领域全面展开创新应用,聚集起一批高水平的人才队伍和创新团队,部分领域的人工智能伦理规范和政策法规初步建立。
第二步,到2025年人工智能基础理论实现重大突破,部分技术与应用达到世界领先水平,人工智能成为带动我国产业升级和经济转型的主要动力,智能社会建设取得积极进展。
——新一代人工智能理论与技术体系初步建立,具有自主学习能力的人工智能取得突破,在多领域取得引领性研究成果。
——人工智能产业进入全球价值链高端。新一代人工智能在智能制造、智能医疗、智慧城市、智能农业、国防建设等领域得到广泛应用,人工智能核心产业规模超过4000亿元,带动相关产业规模超过5万亿元。
——初步建立人工智能法律法规、伦理规范和政策体系,形成人工智能安全评估和管控能力。
第三步,到2030年人工智能理论、技术与应用总体达到世界领先水平,成为世界主要人工智能创新中心,智能经济、智能社会取得明显成效,为跻身创新型国家前列和经济强国奠
定重要基础。
——形成较为成熟的新一代人工智能理论与技术体系。在类脑智能、自主智能、混合智能和群体智能等领域取得重大突破,在国际人工智能研究领域具有重要影响,占据人工智能科技制高点。
——人工智能产业竞争力达到国际领先水平。人工智能在生产生活、社会治理、国防建设各方面应用的广度深度极大拓展,形成涵盖核心技术、关键系统、支撑平台和智能应用的完备产业链和高端产业群,人工智能核心产业规模超过1万亿元,带动相关产业规模超过10万亿元。
——形成一批全球领先的人工智能科技创新和人才培养基地,建成更加完善的人工智能法律法规、伦理规范和政策体系。


美国国家AI研发战略计划
2016年发布
 
Strategy 1: Make long-term investments in AI research. 【长期投资AI研发】
Prioritize investments in the next generation of AI that will drive discovery and insight and enable the United States to remain a world leader in AI.
Strategy 2: Develop effective methods for human-AI collaboration. 【人类和AI合作方法开发】
Rather than replace humans, most AI systems will collaborate with humans to achieve optimal performance. Research is needed to create effective interactions between humans and AI systems.
Strategy 3: Understand and address the ethical, legal, and societal implications of AI. 【AI相关社会问题】
We expect AI technologies to behave according to the formal and informal norms to which we hold our fellow humans. Research is needed to understand the ethical, legal, and social implications of AI, and to develop methods for designing AI systems that align with ethical, legal, and societal goals.
Strategy 4: Ensure the safety and security of AI systems. 【AI安全】
Before AI systems are in widespread use, assurance is needed that the systems will operate safely and securely, in a controlled, well-defined, and well-understood manner. Further progress in research is needed to address this challenge of creating AI systems that are reliable, dependable, and trustworthy.
Strategy 5: Develop shared public datasets and environments for AI training and testing. 【AI训练与测试】
The depth, quality, and accuracy of training datasets and resources significantly affect AI performance. Researchers need to develop high quality datasets and environments and enable responsible access to high-quality datasets as well as to testing and training resources.
Strategy 6: Measure and evaluate AI technologies through standards and benchmarks. 【AI评估】
Essential to advancements in AI are standards, benchmarks, testbeds, and community engagement that guide andevaluate progress in AI. Additional research is needed to develop a broad spectrum of evaluative techniques.
Strategy 7: Better understand the national AI R&D workforce needs. 【AI人才资源】
Advances in AI will require a strong community of AI researchers. An improved understanding of current and future R&D workforce demands in AI is needed to help ensure that sufficient AI experts are available to address the strategic R&D areas outlined in this plan.
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